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  1. To stimulate the building of alliances or federations among POs based on common interest, geo-political location, or advocacy stance.

    Based on common interest

    An existing federation (the Federation of Rural Workers Organizations) with originally 4 member organizations was stimulated to expand membership to 11 cooperatives around a common enterprise (rice trading and milling).

    The expansion and strengthening of this federation achieved the immediate purpose of generating additional capital for the common enterprise and broadening the reach of the project (through the designation of member POs as buying centers for paddy). More efforts however still need to be exerted by the federation to consolidate its membership base (the farmers, that is) so that it will become a reliable source of paddy for the milling and trading project. A greater part of the members' produce are still sold to private traders and a greater part of the rice milled by the project come from non-members.


    Based on geo-political location

    Three municipal federations have been organized: FECUP (Federation of Culasi POs) with 23 member organizations, APO-Patnongon (Association of POs in Patnongon) with 12 member organizations, and ABBA (Alliance of Bugasong-Based Associations) with 12 member organizations. Another two are in the making in the form of loose PO alliances in San Remigio and Sibalom.

    FECUP and APO-Patnongon are actively involved in municipal development planning. FECUP is currently negotiating with the municipal government of Culasi to handle garbage collection in the town. APO-Patnongon runs a consumer store. The PO alliance in San Remigio are into rice trading while that in Sibalom has acquired rights to a stall in the town market and has successfully worked for the inclusion of a PO capability-building and livelihood fund in the municipal budget.


    Based on advocacy stance

    As an offshoot of the 1995 national rice crisis, a provincial movement (Hublag Kabalaka kontra Gutom) for food security was organized by NGOs and POs. A number of ANIAD-assisted organizations are active in this movement.


  3. To promote equitable and more meaningful participation by women in all activities of POs and in community affairs and to make all ANIAD GO and NGO partners gender specific and gender sensitive in all phases of their planning and implementation.

     Women participation in PO and community affairs

    On the average, 54% of PO members are women. The lowest percentage is 41% and this is among the 3 POs implementing otoshi-ami (set-net fishing) projects. There is one PO made up entirely of women.

    The Grameen Bank centers are all-women groups. There are 29 of these centers in 17 barangays, involving 718 mothers.

    Women tend to be a minority (44%) in upland POs.

    Women make up the majority of officers and committee members in the POs. They are consistently the more active members and have better over-all attendance and participation record than men.


    Gender in planning and implementation

    Focal point teams on gender have been organized in 29 government and non-government offices. These teams are tasked with ensuring that gender concerns are given attention in their agency plans, specific activities and allocations for women are included, and that a gender-sensitive atmosphere prevails in their office.

    In the Office of the Provincial Agriculturist, discussions on the role of women in different farming activities, sharing of farming and household tasks, and the implications of introduced technologies for women have been incorporated in the regular monthly meetings of technicians.

    Gender and development has also been integrated in barangay development planning facilitated by PPDO (Provincial Planning and Development Office) and DILG (Department of Interior and Local Government).

    The Philippine National Police has also set up in each of its municipal police stations a women's and children's desk to handle domestic violence, child abuse, and rape cases. Whenever possible, female officers were assigned to these desks.

    Thirty-two day-care workers have been trained in gender-sensitive early childhood care and development.

    A paralegal program to combat violence against women was also initiated with the help of SALIGAN (a Manila-based legal resource center). Paralegal volunteers have been recruited and trained from among PO leaders and NGO and GO workers. In addition, a series of workshops was also held for elected women officials to enhance local legislative support for gender concerns.


  5. To systematically assess and maximize different means to improve the land tenure of farmers and to provide the landless access to land and other productive resources.

    Land tenure improvement

    With ANIAD support, 6342 hectares have been awarded by DAR to barangay residents through collective or mother CLOAs (certificate of land ownership award). Of this, largely due to the insistence of ANIAD, 32% or 2017 hectares have been subdivided and awarded to 1272 farmers through individual titles.

    This is a major accomplishment, considering that up to 1997 DAR has not given priority at all to subdividing lands already reported as awarded to farmers under mother CLOAs. (Subdividing does not add to DAR's over-all accomplishment in terms of hectarage of lands transferred.)

    While there may be merits in collective ownership (as in the case of plantations covered by agrarian reform in Mindanao), farmers in Antique expressed time and again their preference for individual titles, if only to reinforce their de facto possession of specific and defined (through natural markers or landmarks) individual lots. The lack of tenurial security despite actual tillage has been frequently cited as a major reason why farmers are reluctant to plant trees and other permanent crops. For landless agricultural workers, an individual title is a pre-requisite before they can claim and develop their own farm.

    It may be worth noting that starting 1998, as a result of the ANIAD experience, DAR has allocated budget for subdivision surveys in Antique.

    Through DENR, 650 CSCs (certificates of stewardship contract) have been given to forest occupants. These give the right to occupants to develop and earn from government-owned lands for 25 years. 215 free patents have also been awarded by DENR for government lands previously declared as alienable and disposable.

    Tenurial security has also been achieved without the actual transfer of land ownership and this was through leasehold contracts. The conversion of tenants to leaseholders gained momentum with the training of 46 farmers as paralegals. From less than 10 of such cases before the paralegal trainings, the figure climbed to 127 within 2 years after the paralegals became active.

    The paralegals helped ensure that tenurial arrangements are honored by assisting farmers who are being evicted or who are accused of trespassing, qualified theft, and similar suits intended purely to harass them. The paralegals have handled 3 cases before the regional trial court, 3 cases before the municipal circuit court, 12 cases before the provincial agrarian reform adjudicator, and 32 cases before the barangay agrarian reform council and municipal agrarian reform officer.

    Long-term leases (15 to 25 years) covering in total 57 hectares have been entered into directly by POs and landowners. These leases are different from leasehold contracts because no prior element of tenancy existed and the lands involved were previously idle lands. While there were reservations about this arrangement (this was seen by some as a ploy to escape agrarian reform coverage), the lessees did benefit from the annual or short-term crops planted and they expect to benefit from the timber and fruit trees planted.


    Access to land and productive resources for the landless

    Under the landless project, 870 landless households, considered to be among the poorest of the poor, have been reached. Of these, 420 have availed of part-grant part-loan assistance for their livelihood projects, many of which are off-farm activities.

    About 6% of the recipients of individual titles in San Remigio were landless agricultural workers. More than 50 lots in the name of the Republic of the Philippines are still available for the landless in the 6 upland barangays covered and the possibility of encouraging settlers from other barangays is still being studied.


  7. To help POs and individual households mobilize and manage efficiently the resources they generate through their own savings and voluntary contributions and the resources they generate by tapping outside assistance, all these while strengthening their links with existing financial and service institutions.


Savings generation

Efforts to systematize savings generation outside the context of generating start-up counterpart for grants or loans came late in the program and was met with little enthusiasm by the NGOs and a number of POs. The excuse commonly offered was that in many programs in the past (like government programs on cooperative formation during the Marcos years), savings invested in the PO were in most cases mismanaged. In the early years of ANIAD, some PO self-financed projects did fail and it took a while to restore the confidence of members in their PO.

Indeed, the more successful savings schemes relied on compulsory retention and the funds were not placed in the hands of the PO itself but in the credit institution. (This latter arrangement provided added motivation for savings as this was coupled with loan availment.) The more process-oriented approach of letting POs design their own capital build-up scheme and fix the amount of their required regular deposits did not work in most cases. (If they did, it was more because the amount fixed was ludicrously low - like five pesos a month.)








ASHI Grameen Bank


Less than 2



Bugasong MPC





Patnongon MPC





Individual POs


More than 4

~ 4500 ~


Access to credit

In Phase 2 credit management was transferred from AFON to 4 institutions with long experience in credit. Two have municipal coverage (Patnongon Multi-Purpose Cooperative and Bugasong MPC) and catered to individual borrowers; another (Ahon sa Hirap, Inc.) catered to women exclusively; and the last (Antique Federation of Cooperatives) catered to POs (group loans) and the landless (individual loans).










84 POs


AFCCUI Landless

P 327,858

P 43,000

13 ind. in 1 bgy



P 948,000

P 2,646,300

611 ind. in 17 bgy


Bugasong MPC


P 2,934,400

231 ind. in 6 bgy


Patnongon MPC

P 850,000

P 1,450,830

204 ind. in 11 bgy







1st sem 1996

2nd sem 1996

1st sem 1997

2nd sem 1997

1st sem 1998

2nd sem 1998


































The arrangement with Patnongon MPC was stopped after 1997 because of the trend of poor collection (ranging from 47% to 64%). Patnongon MPC relied too much on the PO screening process (which tended to be self-serving) and took at face value the endorsement of the PO and the assisting NGO; thus, its own credit committee screening was perfunctory. There was also no systematic loan utilization check. Many of the delinquent loans were actually used for purposes other than those applied for.

Repayment in the case of AFCCUI for the 2nd semester of 1998 is actually nominally higher (around 82%) because several delinquent loans have been restructured. Poor first crop yield in September 1998 because of El Niño was cited as a reason for poor repayments. During the last quarter of 1998, AFCCUI also encountered internal institutional problems which limited the collection efforts of their staff. A re-engineering plan is currently being implemented by the AFCCUI board of directors, addressing in part the PO-LIFE credit program.

A landless portfolio of P1,465,000 was handled by ANIAD-PMO before it was transferred to AFCCUI. The portfolio was a special one in that the landless were required to repay only half of the loan amount with no interest. Under this scheme, P1,878,570 have been released to 420 beneficiaries (for an average loan of around P4500 per beneficiary). Repayment rate was 76%. The portfolio lost its special features when it was transferred to AFCCUI by the end of 1997 (which is perhaps the reason for the low loan availment rate of 13%).

A portfolio for large loans was also handled by PMO (as talks with commercial banks for the handling of ANIAD funds did not prosper) and from this the following releases were made:



rice milling and trading





P 932,300


Intao FMPC


P 683,000


Tinigbas-Pucio KKMPC


P 741,500


Collections to date are as follows:



P 20,000

slightly behind schedule




slightly behind schedule


Intao FMPC


behind schedule


Tinigbas-Pucio KKMPC


behind schedule


FRWO had a loan restructuring which in effect gave them a grace period of 3 years.

AFON continued to collect outstanding balances from the Phase 1 credit fund it used to manage. Some additional 17% has been collected during Phase 2, bringing the percentage of principal recovered to 85%. P781,357 remain uncollected.


Access to grants

590 PO projects were financed through grants from the Community-Based Non-Economic Fund (CBNEF). Grants released amounted to P12,873,832. The POs, through their own cash, in-kind, and labor contributions and by tapping barangay, municipal, and congressional funds, have generated P21,935,000 as counterpart.

The increase in counterpart requirement from 20% to 30% to 50% has stimulated claim-making by POs with the barangay council, the municipal government, and the district representative to Congress. Many of the later projects, in fact, were jointly implemented and managed by the PO and the barangay council.

The projects funded were:





Potable water supply